In the white powder and also in liquid form

It is prepared by lemon and other citrus fruits scales from the inner dermis of the peels.

 Fruit jellies making, Food products, Emulsifying agents

 Bakery products, cosmetics and in the drugs formations, dehydrating agent.


It is soluble in water, Alcohol and Ether.

Chemically it is formed by the reaction of n hydrides and hydrogen per oxide.

 In the preparation of cream of tartar ,Fruit slats making, backing powder ,photography

and ceramics industry ,Textile industry ,Dying the metals.


It is prepared on the reaction of starch. It is found in white powder form or granular form

Easily soluble in the hot water where as does not dissolve into the alcohol and Ether

 In the gums making products

 In the fireworks products ,cosmetics, thickening agent ,Food and bakery products

 Glass silvering compounds ,Printing inks,


Partially soluble in acid in the water completely insoluble.

Specific gravity 8.32 to 9.16

 In the storage batteries ,glass, varnish making ,cleans the alcohol ,different fireworks

 In the metal paints as a preservative,


White granular chemical compound.

By the reaction of Zinc oxide and HCl.

 As a Catalyst and dehydrating agent

 Fire proofing and wood preserving

 For Steel as polishing compounds

 Electroplating and Adhesives

 Glass etching and petroleum refining

 As carbo-sizing agent in the drugs manufacturing


Odorless white crystalline powder. In the open air moister absorbent

Soluble in water ,glycerin and PG .

Partially soluble in methanol ,ethanol ,acetic acid and Phenol.

Insoluble in the other organic solvents

Prepared by dextrose. While a Very low quantity present in fruits

Crystals,Technical,USP,BP,70% dilute solution readily available in the commercial markets.

 Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) fermentation

 Increasing the viscosity of liquids products.

 In the cosmetics, Tooth paste ,creams ,lotions,

 Tabaco ,gelatin ,paper making ,Candies and toffies ,textile and pharmaceuticals

 As plasticizers in the vinyl resin as a stabilizer,

 Food and bakery products preparations


Its chemical name is Carbohydrate polymer. It exist as white powder and small granular forms.

Tasteless in the mixing of hot water it become a paste form.

As Starch or polysaccharides founded in many plants like Wheat, Corn, Rice, and in the

 In many types of adhesives ,Gummed paper ,tapes ,cartoon and bags

 Machine coated paper, textile filler and sizing agent

 Food and baker products


White brighten crystals or powders

Odorless with strong sweet taste

Soluble in both water and Alcohol

By the notarization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate

 Pharmaceuticals products

 Baker and beverage industry

 Never use it more than 0.1 % in the food items preparation.


Color less or slight yellowish powder.

Make the gel in the water but not dissolve into the Alcohol.

It is collected from marine plants.

 Rheology modifier for liquids

 As a emulsifying agents

 In the ice cream preparation

 Boilers compounds manufacturing

 Textile printing and paper coating

 Water base paints manufacturing

 Food and pharmaceuticals products

 In the Cement composition


It is called fruit sugar or levlose and only present in sweet fruit which is existed in white crystals

Odorless having a strong sweeten taste

Flammable, Nontoxic ,good for health

 In the Bakery and confectionery products formations

 Preserving the fruits and medicines


It is also called Pro Vitamin A and the protein part found in the plants.

Its molecular structural quite resemble to Vitamin A.

Ruby like reddish crystals and decompose into open air,

It is readily soluble in the chloroform, ether and Benzene.

Insoluble in the water and partially soluble in the Alcohol.

Getting from Palm oil, carrots ,soya bean ,corn oil and Alfalfa.

 Pharmaceutical and medicine making

 Coloring margin and butter

 Foods products and other feeds.


White crystals nontransparent ,flexes and cubes forms also found in the granular form.

Specific gravity 2.15 at 25 C

Specific gravity 0.835 at 25 C

Specific gravity 1.71 at 25 C

All the four grades soluble in the water and alcohol

All four grades are non-toxic but lethal on hailing.

By the reaction of calcium carbonate and HCl.

 Deicing and dust control of roads

 Drilling mud ,Dust proofing ,Freezing

 Fungicides ,coal ,cock and stone industry

 Concrete conditioning ,Paper pulp industry.

 Food products ,In the electrolytic cells ,Hexa hydrate.


It is also called Di calcium Orthophosphate ,Bi calcium phosphate, and secondary calcium

Taste odorless tasteless crystalline powder

Soluble in the dilute HCl,HNO3 and in the acetic acid.

Insoluble in the alcohol ,while partially soluble into the water.

Nonflammable and non-toxic

Milk of lime and phosphoric acid by the interaction.

 Bakery products glass industry and medicine.


White and bright crystals with sweeten fragrance.

20 parts glycerin and 2 parts alcohol in 95%.

 Fragrance making ,flavoring agent

 Beverage and Ice creams

 Pharmaceutical industry


Light Brown or brown ,semi viscous liquid with peculiar smell.

Dissolve in Benzene and Chloroform.

Partially soluble in water and acetone.

Usually prepared by mustard oil.

Corn, eggs yolks, and vegetable seeds.

Technical ,Bleached ,unbleached ,plastic ,cosmetic ,edible.

 As a Emulsifying ,dispersing and wetting agent

 Antioxidant chocolate preparations.

 Bakery and food products.

 Animal feeds ,Paint industry ,cosmetics ,Printing inks ,Textile fibers ,plastic and soap


Milk sugar or sugar milk are other names.

Odorless ,white ,brighten ,solid crystalline or powder form.

Insoluble in ether and chloroform

Collecting though floating process.

In the cow milk the quantity of Lactose is 5 %.

Raw ,crude ,edible and pharmaceutical

 Medicine especially homeopathic medicine using as carrier.

 Kids milk ,bakery and confectionery products

 Butter and margarine making

 Yeast manufacturing ,edible protein

 In culture media preparations


Glycerol and glycol alcohol .

Odorless ,colorless transparent syrup like viscous compound

Soluble in alcohol and water and insoluble in ether ,benzene ,chloroform and fixed oils.

Getting as a byproduct in soap making.

U-S-P, C-P Pharmaceutical and commercial ,up to 99.8% to 99.9 purified

 In the alkyd resin preparation ,ester gums preparation ,medicine ,flavoring ,cosmetics in

the beauty creams ,lotions ,shampoos ,Plasticizer ,Food products, for the improvement of

Tabaco quality, as solvent ,printing inks ,Emulsifying agent, as Hydrotropes in liquid

 Lubricant and softeners ,Antifreezing mixture use in car radiators ,transparent soap


Available in white or off white powder along with granular form.

Insoluble in water and acid solution whereas soluble in alkaline solutions.

 Pharmaceutical industry ,food and bakery products ,Solidifying and thicken the ice cream

,chees products .fruit canning.


Murcurious chloride is a chemical name ,odorless white powders or crystalline ,in the light

convert into dark brown color.

Insoluble in alcohol ,ether and water.

Fungicides removing the fungus, Electrodes ,pharmaceutical ceramics paintings ,fireworks


Other names Picric nitric acid, Tri nitrophenol ,Carbazoic acid ,Phenol trinitrate having

Yellowish chemical compound.

Dissolve in Water ,alcohol ,benzene and ether.

Melting point 122 C explosive at 300 C

Nitration of phenol with sulfonic acid

By heating or sticking it become explosive.

 Explosive material, match industry ,Fireworks compounds ,ink making


yellowish to white compound ,liquid, in the paste form. Also in granular form.

Prepared by the fermentation process

 Ethyl alcohol for sugar ,bakery products ,wine productions.in the preparation of Vitamin

B ,Bio chemical research ,textile industry ,Enzyme and nucleic acid preparation


White color powder or crystal form

Dissolve completely in water and alcohol.

Lemon ,pineapple juice.by the fermentation of sugar can or starch

Hydrous, N hydrous, Technical, C-P-U ,BP ,F-C-C

 Use in titrates preparation, Flavoring extract for, Bakery products, Soft drinks,

 Acids preparations ,Dispersing agent ,medicine ,Antioxidant as for food products ,Water

conditioning agent ,in detergents as builder ,Alkyd resin preparation ,Squash preparation

,In the cosmetics industry ,Lowering the PH value


It is also called crystal ammonia.

Available into Colorless crystal or white powders .Stable in air or placed in moister air it convert

Ammonia like strongly pungent taste.

Method of purification Sublimation

It is prepared by heating the ammonium salt and calcium carbonate together.

Technical ,cubes , powders ,CP, NF,FCC

 Preparation in ammonia salts

 Medicine ,especially in the cough syrups ,bakery industry ,confectionery products

,Backing powder ,as a smelling salts ,fire astonishing compounds ,pharmaceutical

industry ,Organic chemicals ,wool washing


White granular chemical compound

Salty with squeezing taste, Feel cooling on placing it on the tongue.

Easily dissolve in water and glycerin

It is prepared by the reaction of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions.

U-S-P, F-C-C and technical grades

Heavy dose may lead to death.

 Homeopathic remedies and general medicine preparations,

 Fireworks and dry batteries ,textile industry ,In the fertilizers preparation ,Soldering flux

,Food and bakery products ,Zinc coating ,washing powders formulations ,cosmetics ,UF

resin glues formation ,Electroplating

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