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Pigment Selection

Once a formulator has decided on the shade required for a particular application, the next most important criteria of anypigment are its fastness properties according to the final color products.


Titanium dioxide, in the two naturally occurring crystal forms, anatase and rutile, is the most important white pigment, which47854provides maximum opacifying power. Normally, TiO2 pigments are not used in their pure form because of their poor dispersibility in a variety of resins and solvents. Generally, they are surface coated with small amounts of alumina, silica, or both (up to 3% total, on TiO2) to increase the functionality of the surface (active adsorption sites for the resin molecules) and to improve dispersibility and impart stability to the dispersion, especially in alkyd resin paint systems.

Iron blue

The most common and economical inorganic blue is iron blue, Pigment Blue 27, a complex ferriferrocyanide having the formula FeNH4 Fe(CN)6.xH2O. Originally called Prussian Blue Chinese Blue is a fine grade that exhibits a green undertone as compared to the original Prussian Blue. Bronze blue is a variety that exhibits a surface bronze that depends on the angle at which the surface is viewed

Chrome orange

Chrome orange, Pigment Orange 21, is a basic lead chromate formed under alkaline conditions to give a product of empirical formula PbCrO4 . x PbO. Shades from a yellow-shade to a red-shade orange can be produced, depending on the alkalinity of the reaction ma

Iron oxide red

iron oxide browns, we again see pigments that are available as both natural and synthetic products. Iron oxide red, Pigment Red 101

Ultramarine Violet

Violet 15, a sodium sulfosilicate prepared by oxidation of Pigment Blue 29,Ultramarine blue. The redness of hue of the violet is determined by controlling the degree of oxidation.Chemically the pigment is Na4H2Al6Si6O24S2.

Strontium Yellow

Yellow 32 and is chemically strontium chromate, SrCrO4, prepared by precipitating a soluble chromate with a solution of an appropriate strontium salt. The pigment is used primarily in corrosion-inhibiting coatings. Its poor tint strength, low




Pigments are usually dispersed in vehicles or substrates for application, as for instance in inks, paints,plastics, or other polymeric materials. Pigments retain a crystal or particulate structure throughout the coloration process.

Copper Phthalocyanine Blue

Copper phthalocyanine blue (PB 15), with its usage far outweighing other blues such as Indathrone blue (PB 60).

Organic Red

Reds used in the coatings industry fall into the chemical category of azo pigments because the azo chromophore —N=N— is a images8695feature of the molecule.

Types of Quinacridone

Color Index Name                   Hue                                Comments


PO 48                                      Gold                               Quinacridone quinone

PO 49                                      Deep Gold                    Quinacridone quinone

PR 122                                     Magenta-yellow             2,9-Dimethyl quinacridone

PR 192                                    Red-yellow                     Unsymmetrical monomethyl quinacridone

PR 202                                    Magenta-blue                 2,9-Dichloroquinacridone

PR 206                                    Maroon                          Mixed solid solution

PR 207                                    Scarlet                          4,11-Dichloroquinacridone

PR 209                                    Yellow-shade red           3,10-Dichloroquinacridone

PV 19                                      Violet-blue-                     Quinacridone


Organic Yellows                       

Yellow pigments can be subdivided into four broad classifications based on their chemical constitution. These classifications are comprised of monoarylide yellows, diarylide yellows, benzimidazolone yellows,and heterocyclic yellows.

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