Today rubber industry becomes a giant industry in the world with its huge volume as the billions of people attached with this trade. From a small scale unit to a big enterprise business in the other words from the pencil eraser or toys making, to automobile parts or plane tires belong to this industry .The base of the rubber industry is a natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc while Synthetic rubber is made by the polymerization of a variety of petroleum-based precursors called monomers.
Technical steps in rubber industry
- Polymer(latex rubber) producers
- Rubber manufacturing
The main source of the natural rubber is the rubber trees where it collects in the milky liquid form. This milk is filled into the drums with the addition of certain acid to start the rubber clotting which are later segregated from the water .Now these rubber clotting are passed through a machine to sheet manufacturing .These sheet are called raw rubber while the natural rubber also known as latex. The rubber percentage in the latex is 60%.
There are many processes for latex rubber to make the desire rubber products.
Vulcanization is a process in which rubber pieces filled into the molds for a specific period of time at the certain temperature. It is a compulsory process for every rubber making articles while sulfur is an obsessive element in the rubber vulcanization. Zinc oxide is also added along with sulfur to get the optimum results in the final product manufacturing. Both these two elements bring the elastic properties in the rubber products.
When the rubber contents mix with other chemicals in the mixing mill after that filled into the molds. These molds are heated to a required temperature for maturing the rubber goods while heat providing to the molds is called curing.
Rubber goods making methods
There are generally two methods applied in the rubber goods formation one is molds method for making rubber toys, cycle grips ,soft ,sole production and the other method is extrusion process for hose pipes ,rubber insulting electric wires.
The short summery of rubber goods method is that the rubber raw material put in the mixing mill to soften the rubber contents. A variety of other chemicals like fillers (clay) adding in the mixing mill for the formulation of rubber compound or rubber composition .on the propitiate cooling the rubber compounds cut into small pieces which would later filled in the molds for curing. These molds have been heated by steam press or manual press and vulcanized for 10 to 20 mints. Now the rubber products are ready to pack.
Equipment and machinery
Rubber mixing mill
It is the backbone of the rubber industry to mix the rubber contents with other chemicals with different sizes and models. Electric safety device, glass lubricants, gear covers ,water reservoir and the tray are the parts of the mixing machine.
It is called a tubing machine which is used to make, tubes ,hoses ,cycle tubes ,and threads.
Rubber calendaring machine
In the rubber industry for producing the sheet conveyer and transmitting belting by this machine .Different sizes and models of calendaring machine with gravity lubrication ,gear covers ,and water reservoir parts.
Vulcanizing press ,boiler ,rubber ,auto clave ,hydraulic press ,rubber spreading machine, solution mixture ,green tires making machine, air bag press ,tire opening machine ,cranked machine ,screening machine ,rotating drum ,refining mill ,sleeper
Rubber testing machine
Tensile testing machine
Hardness testing machine
Chemicals used in rubber industry
Sodium carbonate, HCl, French chalk, China clay, Benzene, Styrene , Zinc oxide, Formaldehyde solution,Petroleum hydro carbon solution ,Whitening ,Natural rubber oxide ,Stearic acid ,Light magnesium carbonate ,Activated calcium carbonate ,Rosin ,Carbon disulfide ,Ammonia and Carbon black.