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Soap and Detergent Industry



A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with “cleaning properties in dilute solutions.Soaps, washing powders, liquid and other chemicals act the function of removing the soil, stains, oils, and greasy partials from the fibers.On the basis of water reaction, there are four types of detergents

  1. Anionic526628_512355618825876_1382908554_n
  2. Cationic
  3. Non ionic
  4. Amphoteric.


A negatively charged ion having the abilities to dissolve the fats or lipids molecules in the cleaning action. A lot of detergents belong to this group mainly  sulfonate and  sulfate products including the long chain fatty acid alkyl aryl sulfonate , alcohol sulfonate,sulfonated ether,Olefin sulfates and sulfonates,Alkane sulfonates and phosphoenol .


Cationic are the opposite of the an ionic detergents as it carries the positive charges with the ability to dissolve the fats and oils particles. Cationic detergents chemicals are not use for cleaning as they have the strong caustic and alkali chemicals properties which act as anti-germicide.

These are toxic behavior in nature and use for maturing the fiber colors.


Nonionic detergents do not make any ion in the water which are made by animal fats, alcohol, amides, and amines molecules. These detergent mostly use with other detergents.


Carry the strong pungent properties and act as ionic and cationic dual behavior in the water .They are germicide and slightly effected  on the human skin

Washing powders  contents divided into three constituent which are

1. Detergent

Chemicals of this group easily dissolve in the water to reduce the surface tension values. The detergent contents easily reach to the fibers and react with grease ,oils and  soils  partials to  dissolve in the water .To producing the foam and softness is the primary cleaning function of the detergent.

2. Builders

Widely used for the stability of the foam with increasing the detergent properties. It is responsible to dissolve the other contents in the heavy water also to prevent the removing particles again with the fiber.

3. Fillers

Associated with a little builders properties  providing  the alkalinity in the powder working  as antirust for machine.

Some of the basic chemicals for detergent makings are

Sodium carbonate

Alkali chemical help in a cleaning action use as a builder.

Sodium silicate

Use as filler and work as rust inhibitor with a slight building action.

Sodium tri polyphosphate(STP,STPP)

A very fine builder which produce foam in heavy and light water with a highly cleaning property especially for white clothes.

Sodium meta silicate

Add as a filler for mixing the dry powders.


To prevent the dust and soil particles accumulate with cloths as it works as stain releasing agent.

Sodium sulfate

Reduce the alkalinity and work as builder in light water.

Sodium polyphosphate

It has the ability to control the heavy water.


To produce whiteness and brighten in the cloths with 0.3 to 0.4 % add in any detergent formulation.

Perfuming and flavoring agents

Organic compounds make the washing process more fragrant and scented to produce the skin softness.

Detergent making processes

  • Absorption
  • Absorption and neutralizing
  • Spray drying
  • Drum drying
  • Dry mixing or powder mixing
  • Filtering
  • Packing


Washing powder industrial formula:-


% by weight

Sulfonic acid

12.00 kg

Sodium tri polyphosphate (STPP)

5.00 kg

Sodium meta silicate

5.00 kg

Sodium carbonate

77.00 kg

Pine oil

1.00 kg


100.00 kg


  • Put the STPP ,soda ash and sodium meta silicate in the mixture machine.
  • After mixing well add the sulfonic acid with a constant rate.
  • Run the machine for 15 mints.
  • Mix the pine oil and again run the machine for 2 mints.
  • A homogenous mixture require the following processes.
  • start the spray drying or drum drying process
  • Grinding, filtering and packing the detergent powder
  • Neutralization can be done by soda ash.
  • Formulate the100 kg industrial cleaner.

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