Textile Formula | Textile fibers and its processing
In the making of cloth four types of fibers have been used which are protein, cellulose, chemical and mineral fibers. First two types are natural while other two are synthetic fibers.
Wool is the most ancient fiber in the class of natural fibers .History tells that man firstly use to cover his body by animal skin which after turn into wool fibers. The most significant features of this fiber are that it has great ability to absorb the water while the alkali and acid have no effect on it.. Wool is used in pure form as well as by mixing other fibers.
(ii) Silk fibers.
In the recent time it becomes a household industry which is produced by silkworm through a specific method. It is very a expensive fiber and the cloth is made by it very smooth and precious.
Cellulose fibers also have two types’ i.e, cotton and Ryan
(i)Cotton fiber is quite strong and durable fiber. Detergents have no effect on this fiber.
(ii)Ryan is consider as artificial silk which is prepared by cotton and other fibers, Most famous Ryan fibers are Viscose Ryan, acetate and linen.
Textile Formula | Chemical fibers
Chemical fibers consist of Nylon, polyester, acrylic fibers.
Mineral fibers are glass fibers, asbestos, metal and metalloid fibers.
After producing the desire fiber the process of bleaching, dyeing and finishing start in their baths.
Textile Formula | Bleaching and Scoring
Bleaching and scoring baths play very important role in the textile industry. Scoring is used for cleaning the fiber of the cloth while bleaching is used for the removal of color substances in the fiber. For scoring bath caustic soda, washing soda and sodium silicate are used while in the bleaching process Hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite is used .Both these two processes are performed in the huge machines.
Textile Formula | dyeing
Dying is the next process of fiber in which desire color print on the cloth. Before dying again make sure that no fats and other substance remain in the fiber. otherwise the dying process will not give proper results. In the dying of cotton firstly prepare a color solution. For this purpose desire color mix with the sodium sulfide to make a solution in a heating bath then allows to cool it.
After this a color and soda ash mix into the water which later on becomes a paste. Sodium sulfide’s solution mix with it through hot water then to clean the solution. The solution is ready to use for cotton dying.
Textile Formula | Finishing
The last process is called “finishing” in which different chemical reactions take place in the finishing bath. These chemicals are used to improve the quality of the cloth as stiffening materials, binders, fillers, softening agent and for water proofing.